The association between kidney disease and cancer is multifaceted and complex. Persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased incidence of cancer, and both cancer and cancer treatments can cause impaired kidney function. Renal issues in the setting of malignancy can worsen patient outcomes and diminish the adequacy of anticancer treatments. In addition, the oncology treatment landscape is changing rapidly, and data on tolerability of novel therapies in patients with CKD are often lacking. Caring for oncology patients has become more specialized and interdisciplinary, currently requiring collaboration among specialists in nephrology, medical oncology, critical care, clinical pharmacology/pharmacy, and palliative care, in addition to surgeons and urologists. To identify key management issues in nephrology relevant to patients with malignancy, KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) assembled a global panel of multidisciplinary clinical and scientific expertise for a controversies conference on onco-nephrology in December 2018. This report covers issues related to kidney impairment and solid organ malignancies as well as management and treatment of kidney cancer. Knowledge gaps, areas of controversy, and research priorities are described.Copyright © 2020 Kidney Disease:Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.