In hypertensive patients, intensive treatment of hypertension can be beneficial for maintaining cardiovascular and cognitive health, but it may affect the kidney function in the short term. But whether a declining kidney function is associated with cognitive impairment is not clear. This study aims to assess the association between reduced kidney function and the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment.

This study included a total of 9,361 participants. The researchers evaluated the markers of kidney function and the effect of intensive hypertension treatment on the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The participants were categorized based on baseline and longitudinal changes in the eGFR and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. The primary endpoint of the study was the incidence of MCU and dementia.

At the mean follow-up of 5.1 years, 8,563 who completed at least one cognitive assessment were included. MCI occurred in 640 participants (7.6%) and dementia in 325 (3.8%). The findings suggested no significant association between baseline eGFR and the risk of MCI or dementia.

The research concluded that although declining eGFR is linked to an increase in probable MCI and dementia, the risk was not associated with the intensity of the hypertension treatment.