Kisspeptins (KPs), peptide products of the kisspeptin-1 () gene, are the endogenous ligands for the KISS1 receptor, KISS1R, which is a G protein-coupled receptor. In many human tumors, functions as a metastasis-suppressor gene and KISS1/KISS1R signaling has antimetastatic and tumor-suppressor roles. On the contrary, emerging evidence indicates that the KP/KISS1R pathway plays detrimental roles in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most difficult type of breast cancer to treat. TNBC patients initially respond to chemotherapy, but tumors acquire drug resistance and many patients relapse and die of metastases within a few years. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of the mechanisms by which KP/KISS1R signaling plays an adverse role in TNBC. This includes focusing on how KISS1R signaling regulates the cell cytoskeleton to induce tumor invadopodia formation and how KISS1R communicates with growth factor receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor, the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, and transforming growth factor-β to promote cell invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance.
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