This review aims to systematically map global evidence on foot-care knowledge and practices in relation to diabetes mellitus (DM) and identify areas that need further research.
Database searches were undertaken using Google Scholar, Medline (PubMed), Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost), and Medline (EBSCOhost). Studies were initially sought by title and focused on knowledge of diabetic foot ulcer burden. The framework by Arksey and O’Malley and the PRISMA-SCR guidelines were used to guide the methodology. The themes explored were principles of foot-care knowledge and practice and these were reported using content analysis. The mixed-methods appraisal tool (MMAT) was employed to appraise the quality of the primary studies.
Fifty-eight studies published between 2008 and 2018 met the inclusion criteria. Participants in various studies had varying degrees of foot-care knowledge and practice, including foot inspection, foot hygiene, glycaemic control, and foot protection. Many people had knowledge of the various aspects of foot care but fewer practiced proper foot care. The MMAT showed the majority of the articles to be of high quality.
Level of foot-care knowledge and practice varied in the studies. A need for intervention on foot care was highlighted.
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