The purpose of this study was to further investigate factors associated with Krukenberg’s spindle (KS) presence in a primary eye care setting.
As part of a larger investigation, several practitioners in an academic eye care facility in Chicago, IL, USA evaluated patients for the long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait during 2011 to 2018, and data were collected on ocular/systemic health, lifestyle, and demographic variables, including the presence of a KS. Multivariate regression was used to assess relationships to KS presence.
Analysis included 3501 subjects with mean age of 51 ± 15 years (18-98 years; 65% women; and 84% African American). Among the right eyes, 57 (1.6%) had a KS, with this group having a mean age of 62 ± 13 years (25-86 years; 75% women; and 82% African American). There were 120 subjects (3.4%) with right eye LAZ, with mean age of 64 ± 11 years (36-91 years; 77% women; and 92% African American). There were 19 of 57 (33.3%) KS eyes that also had LAZ. Controlling for other factors, variables with the strongest relationship to KS presence were the LAZ trait (odds ratio [OR] = 12.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.5 to 22.8, P < 0.0001) and advancing age (OR = 1.3 per decade, 95% CI = 1.3 to 1.9, P < 0.0001).
In the population studied, KS presence had its strongest relationship to the LAZ trait and advancing age. The KS-LAZ relationship may not be well-known, but these data strongly suggest that pigment dispersion signs, such as a KS, should prompt the clinician to consider the LAZ trait as a potential etiology, especially because LAZ is associated with higher IOP and possibly glaucoma.