The authors set out to study whether autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), an established risk factor for intracranial aneurysms (IAs), affects the acute course and long-term outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).
The outcomes of 32 ADPKD patients with aSAH between 1980 and 2015 (median age 43 years; 50% women) were compared with 160 matched (age, sex, and year of aSAH) non-ADPKD aSAH patients in the prospectively collected Kuopio Intracranial Aneurysm Patient and Family Database.
At 12 months, 75% of the aSAH patients with ADPKD versus 71% of the matched-control aSAH patients without ADPKD had good outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 4 or 5). There was no significant difference in condition at admission. Hypertension had been diagnosed before aSAH in 69% of the ADPKD patients versus 27% of controls (p < 0.001). Multiple IAs were present in 44% of patients in the ADPKD group versus 25% in the control group (p = 0.03). The most common sites of ruptured IAs were the anterior communicating artery (47% vs 29%, p = 0.05) and the middle cerebral artery bifurcation (28% vs 31%), and the median size was 6.0 mm versus 8.0 mm (p = 0.02). During the median follow-up of 11 years, a second aSAH occurred in 3 of 29 (10%) ADPKD patients and in 4 of 131 (3%) controls (p = 0.11). A fatal second aSAH due to a confirmed de novo aneurysm occurred in 2 (6%) of the ADPKD patients but in none of the controls (p = 0.027).
The outcomes of ADPKD patients with aSAH did not differ significantly from those of matched non-ADPKD aSAH patients. ADPKD patients had an increased risk of second aSAH from a de novo aneurysm, warranting long-term angiographic follow-up.