In China, lamb and fish are well-known triggers for an asthma attack. Our investigation aims at assessing whether the long-term intake of lamb meat or Basa fish would aggravate pulmonary inflammation (PI) as well as exploring changes in the intestinal microbiota and immune cells in asthmatic mice. The murine asthmatic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) plus aluminum on days 0 and 14 and nebulization of OVA from day 21 to 27. Lamb meat or fish was administered to asthmatic mice by oral gavage from day 0 to 27.

Our results showed that long-term consumption of lamb meat or Basa fish in asthmatic mice increased the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), enhanced levels of IL-5, IL-13 in BALF, and total IgE in serum aggravated PI cell infiltration and mucus secretion. Long-term oral lamb enhanced the proportion of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) from the small intestine while inhibiting Treg from the lung in asthmatic mice. Oral fish showed no remarkable effect on ILC2 from lung and small intestine but inhibited intestinal Treg in asthmatic mice. What is more, the chao-1 and observed species richness and PD whole tree diversity increased in asthmatic mice while these increments were inhibited after lamb treatment. PCA analysis indicated significant differences in the bacterial community composition after lamb or fish treatment in asthmatic mice. Both lamb and fish treatment enhanced the abundance of colonic Alistipes in asthmatic mice.

Collectively, long-term intake of lamb or fish shapes colonic bacterial communities and aggravates PI in asthmatic mice, which provides reasonable food guidance for asthmatic patients.