The X chromosome was one of the 2 sex chromosomes in humans, and about 1 out of every 2,000 live female births were affected by Turner syndrome (TS). The proof above suggested that, in the school-age, girls with TS frequently required speech and language therapy; however, very little was understood about the language development of newborns and toddlers. The outline (N=31) examined the language profiles of 12- and 24-month-old girls with TS, as well as the proportion of girls who might be “at-risk” for communication issues. To assess the long-term stability of the outcome, researchers followed a subset of 12-month-old girls with TS from birth to 24 months. While all mean scores were within the average range at both time points, a higher incidence of 24-month-old girls with TS “at-risk” for receptive language issues was determined. Both time points revealed increased linguistic expressiveness, as well as superior receptive language capabilities. Based on clinical evaluation, the researchers found 12-month-old girls to be “at-risk” for social and symbolic difficulties, whereas only symbolic problems were significant based on caregiver feedback. In the outline, at 24 months, the clinical evaluation revealed greater speech sounds and word use than typical predictions. Caregivers reported more speech sounds and gestures used in their daily life. An average of girls who displayed “at-risk” status on either the PLS-4 or CSBS-DP remained within the average range for more than a year (12 to 24 months), with all mean test scores remaining in the typical range. At both ages, receptive language abilities were found to be significantly lower than expressive. The average scores for social and symbolic communication abilities were good, with both demonstrating significant gains in clinical testing from 12 to 24 months. The caregiver report found that the usage of gestures and production of speech sounds not only improved from 12 to 24 months but also exceeded normative expectations. The results recommended the activity of associatively intacted speech and linguistic qualities while the first 2 years life along with the enhanced receptive linguistic growth care. Researchers hence concluded with indicating ongoing growth surveillance is more important.

 

Link:jneurodevdisorders.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s11689-021-09401-1