In the study, we explored whether sleep chronotypes are associated with asthma in adolescents. We analyzed 24,655 physician-diagnosed adolescent asthmatic patients and 253,775 non-asthmatic adolescent patients from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors factors, psychological factors, and sleep parameters were assessed using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). Logistic regression after adjusting for multiple confounders was used to explore the association between sleep chronotype and asthma. The asthmatic adolescent group slept less (≤5 h: 24.3% vs. 23.2%) than the non-asthmatic adolescent group. Mean sleep duration (430.6 ± 95.6 vs. 433.5 ± 93.6 min), midpoint of sleep on school-free days (MSF; 255.9 ± 75.9 vs. 258.3 ± 73.6 min), midpoint of sleep on school days (MSW; 199.1 ± 49.1 vs. 200.1 ± 48.4 min), sleep duration on school days (SDW; 398.2 ± 98.1 vs. 400.2 ± 96.8 min), and sleep duration on school-free days (SDF; 511.8 ± 151.9 vs. 516.7 ± 147.2 min) were significantly lower, sleep satisfaction was significantly poorer (low sleep satisfaction: 41.3% vs. 37.5%), and late chronotype was significantly higher in the asthmatic adolescent (21.1% vs. 20.0%). After adjusting for multiple confounders, late chronotype was significantly associated with an increased frequency of adolescent asthma (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09) compared to intermediate chronotypes. Although our study shows a very modest association (OR of 1.05 in the fully adjusted model), we show that the late sleep chronotype is associated with asthma in adolescents in South Korea.