AIDS research and human retroviruses 2017 09 21() doi 10.1089/AID.2015.0379
Despite all the efforts to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemics, there still are individuals of unknown diagnosis. These present high risk of mortality and after diagnosis respond very poorly to treatment. Late testing also represents a reduced opportunity in controlling the transmission of HIV and causes an indirect increase in the transmission rates of other diseases, such as tuberculosis. In European countries, as well as in the United States, a great number of people, represented especially by illegal immigrants, black individuals, and women, markedly present at a later state of infection. In 1996, Brazil was the very first developing country to offer free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy, as well as easy access to HIV testing and care. Nonetheless, there is still a significant number of young and adult subjects who look for HIV/AIDS services and hospitals at later stage of infection by HIV (late presenters). Here we discuss important aspects related to the late diagnosis of HIV in Brazil and worldwide.