To explore the value of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) bronchial provocation test (BPT) in detection of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in children.
A total of 151 children aged 6 to 14 years, including 86 in remission of asthma and 65 with acute bronchitis, who were followed up in our respiratory clinic between November, 2017 and August, 2018. The children were randomly divided into LTD4 group (78 cases) and methacholine (MCH) group (73 cases). In LTD4 group, the 78 children underwent LTD4-BPT, including 46 with asthma and 32 children having re-examination for previous episodes of acute bronchitis; in MCH group, the 73 children underwent MCH-BPT, including 40 with asthma and 33 with acute bronchitis. MCH-BPT was also performed in the asthmatic children in the LTD4 group who had negative responses to LTD4 after an elution period. The major adverse reactions of the children to the two BPT were recorded. The diagnostic values of the two BPT were evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
There was no significant difference in the results of basic lung function tests between LTD4 group and MCH group (>0.05). The positive rate of BPT in asthmatic children in the LTD4 group was significantly lower than that in the MCH group (26.1% 72.5%; < 0.05). The positive rate of BPT in children with previous acute bronchitis in the LTD4 group was lower than that in the MCH group (3.1% 15.2%). The positive rate of MCH-BPT in asthmatic children had negative BPT results in LTD4 group was 58.8%, and their asthma was mostly mild. The sensitivity was lower in LTD4 group than in MCH group (0.2609 0.725), but the specificity was slightly higher in LTD4 group (0.9688 vs 0.8485).The area under ROC curvein LTD4 group was lower than that in MCH group (0.635 0.787). In children with asthma in the LTD4 group, the main adverse reactions in BPT included cough (34.8%), shortness of breath (19.6%), chest tightness (15.2%), and wheezing (10.9%). The incidence of these adverse reactions was significantly lower in LTD4 group than in MCH group ( < 0.05). Serious adverse reactions occurred in neither of the two groups.
LTD4-BPT had high safety in clinical application of children and was similar to the specificity of MCH-BPT. However, it had low sensitivity, low diagnostic value, and limited application value in children’s AHR detection.