Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer 2017 11 23() doi 10.1007/s00520-017-3976-1
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic oral levofloxacin in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients after receiving consolidation chemotherapy to prevent febrile neutropenia.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of 50 AML patients who were prescribed levofloxacin and 50 AML patients who were not prescribed levofloxacin post-consolidation chemotherapy between June 2006 and August 2013 at a tertiary academic medical center. The primary outcome of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of levofloxacin in preventing hospital readmission due to febrile neutropenia. Secondary outcomes evaluated the safety of this therapy, including the rate of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) within 30 days from discharge of receiving consolidation chemotherapy and rate of fluoroquinolone resistance in positive bacterial cultures.
Hospital readmission due to febrile neutropenia after the first consolidation cycle occurred in 42% of patients prescribed levofloxacin, as compared to 72% that were not prescribed levofloxacin (p = 0.002). This was also significantly reduced when levofloxacin was prescribed after all consolidation cycles (51.4 vs. 67%, p = 0.023). CDAD did not occur in any patient prescribed levofloxacin after the first cycle, compared to one case in those not prescribed levofloxacin. Evaluation of the impact on fluoroquinolone resistance was limited due to a paucity of fluoroquinolone susceptibilities reported.
Prescribing oral levofloxacin post-consolidation chemotherapy in AML patients is associated with a reduction in febrile neutropenia. Further research is required to identify the impact on fluoroquinolone resistance and risk of CDAD.