There was a need for research on the links between maternal food habits during pregnancy and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) in disproportionately burdened communities such as Hispanics/Latinas. In the third trimester of pregnancy, women in the Maternal and Developmental Risks from Environmental and Social Stressors (MADRES) cohort (an ongoing, prospective pregnancy cohort of predominantly low-income Hispanic/Latina women in Los Angeles) completed up to two 24-hour dietary recalls using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (N=464). During ≥2 consecutive prenatal visits, HDPs were extracted from the mother’s medical records based on a physician’s diagnosis or having systolic or diastolic blood pressure measures (≥140 mmHg and ≥90 mmHg, respectively). Researchers used multiple logistic regression to examine the relationship between having any HDP, gestational hypertension (GHTN), or pre-eclampsia during pregnancy and two dietary patterns previously identified using factor analysis in MADRES (Solid Fats, Refined Grains, and Cheese (SRC); Vegetables, Oils, and Fruit (VOF)), as well as the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2015), after controlling for maternal age, education, Hispanic/Latina ethnic (only in SRC and VOF models). They also evaluated dietary associations with gestational diabetes in distinct animals.
Any HDP, GHTN, and preeclampsia were present in 21.6%, 6.67%, and 12.1% of the population. When comparing highest-to-lowest quartiles, the SRC dietary pattern was associated with a higher risk of having any HDP (OR=3.50, 95% CIs: 1.34, 9.10; Ptrend=0.010) and preeclampsia (OR=3.59, 95% CIs: 1.11, 11.62; Ptrend=0.058), while the VOF dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia (OR= Higher chances of HDP and preeclampsia were associated with the SRC eating pattern in individuals without gestational diabetes (Pinteractions=0.008 and 0.010, respectively). The results for HEI-2015 were negative.
A diet heavy in solid fats, refined grains, and cheese during late pregnancy was related to an elevated risk of preeclampsia and HDP, even among women without gestational diabetes, among mostly low-income Hispanic/Latina women.