T cells recognize “foreign” antigens and induce durable humoral and cellular immune responses, which are indispensable for defending pathogens, as well as maintaining the integrity and homeostasis of tissues and organs. T cells are the major immune cell population in the tumor microenvironment which play a critical role in the antitumor immune response and cancer immune surveillance. Defective immune response of tumor-infiltrating T cells is the main cause of cancer immune evasion. The antitumor response of T cells is affected by multiple factors in the tumor microenvironment, including immunosuppressive cells, immune inhibitory cytokines, tumor-derived suppressive signals like PD-L1, immnuogenicity of tumor cells, as well as metabolic factors like hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Abundant studies in past decades have proved the metabolic regulations of the immune response of T cells and the tumor-infiltrating T cells. In this chapter, we will discuss the regulations of the antitumor response of tumor-infiltrating T cells by lipid metabolism, which is one of the main components of metabolic regulation.
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