Endocrine-related cancer 2017 11 16() pii 10.1530/ERC-17-0188
Thyroid cancer continues to be the most common malignancy of endocrine glands. The incidence of thyroid cancer rises significantly over the past 4 decades and emerges as a major health issue. In recent years, a significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of molecular mechanisms of thyroid carcinogenesis, resulting in significant diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications; yet, it has not reached a satisfactory level. Identifying novel molecular therapeutic targets and molecules for diagnosis and prognosis are expected to advance the overall management of this common malignancy. Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of various key cellular genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion mainly through modulation of gene expression. Recent studies have established that lncRNAs are deregulated in thyroid cancer. In this review, we discuss extensively the tumor suppressive (for example, LINC00271, MEG3, NAMA, PTCSC1/2/3, etc.) and oncogenic (for example, ANRIL, FAL1, H19, PVT1, etc.) role of various lncRNAs and their possible disease associations implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis. We briefly summarize the strategies and mechanisms of lncRNA-targeting agents. We also describe the potential role of lncRNAs as the prospective novel therapeutic targets, diagnostic and prognostic markers in thyroid cancer.