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Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Nitrogen Dioxide and Risk of Heart Failure: A Cohort Study.

Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Nitrogen Dioxide and Risk of Heart Failure: A Cohort Study.
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Sørensen M, Wendelboe Nielsen O, Sajadieh A, Ketzel M, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou-Nielsen O,


Sørensen M, Wendelboe Nielsen O, Sajadieh A, Ketzel M, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou-Nielsen O, (click to view)

Sørensen M, Wendelboe Nielsen O, Sajadieh A, Ketzel M, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou-Nielsen O,

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Environmental health perspectives 2017 09 26125(9) 097021 doi 10.1289/EHP1272
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Although air pollution and road traffic noise have been associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, associations with heart failure have received only little attention.

OBJECTIVES
We aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to road traffic noise and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were associated with incident heart failure.

METHODS
In a cohort of 57,053 people 50-64 y of age at enrollment in the period 1993-1997, we identified 2,550 cases of first-ever hospital admission for heart failure during a mean follow-up time of 13.4 y. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2011 were found in national registers, and road traffic noise (Lden) and NO2 were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox proportional hazard model.

RESULTS
An interquartile range higher 10-y time-weighted mean exposure for Lden and NO2 was associated with incidence rate ratios (IRR) for heart failure of 1.14 (1.08-1.21) and 1.11 (1.07-1.16), respectively, in models adjusted for gender, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. In models with mutual exposure adjustment, IRRs were 1.08 (1.00-1.16) for Lden and 1.07 (1.01-1.14) for NO2. We found statistically significant modification of the NO2-heart failure association by gender (strongest association among men), baseline hypertension (strongest association among hypertensive), and diabetes (strongest association among diabetics). The same tendencies were seen for noise, but interactions were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS
Long-term exposure to NO2 and road traffic noise was associated with higher risk of heart failure, mainly among men, in both single- and two-pollutant models. High exposure to both pollutants was associated with highest risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1272.

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