Paclitaxel-eluting devices (PED) reduce restenosis and target lesion revascularization (TLR) in femoropopliteal intervention. Recent data suggest a two-fold increased long-term mortality in patients treated with PED. The aim of our study is to evaluate if endovascular therapy (EVT) with PED increases mortality risk in patients with symptomatic lower limb peripheral artery disease (PAD) compared to non-eluting devices (NED).
The study is a retrospective, single-center registry on patients undergoing EVT for PAD from January 2009 to June 2018. Propensity score analysis on logistic regression model for independent predictors of long-term mortality was used to match PED and NED patients. Mortality was assessed at 2, 5 and 7 years in the entired matched population and in a sub-group of patients ≤75 years.
During the study period, 1294 patients, 718 NED and 576 PED, met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and entered in the study. Propensity score matching analysis identified 854 matched patients, 414 PED and 440 NED. The population was mainly characterized by diabetic patients with CLI (80%) and high prevalence of CAD (30%), heart failure (15%) and renal insufficiency (20%). Mean follow-up length was 58 ± 34 months, (median 52.5). Mortality was 18% in NED vs 12% in PED patients at two years (p = 0.01), 36% vs 30% at 5 years (p = 0.03) and 41% vs 39% at seven years (p = 0.2) respectively. In patients ≤75 years, mortality at 7-year was 28% in PED vs 36% in NED, p = 0.07.
These results suggest a reduced mortality at 2 and 5 years with PED as compare to NED treatment in a real-world CLI scenario. At 7-year follow-up, the advantage was numerically evident only in patients ≤75 years.

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