Iatrogenic cardiac tamponades are a rare but dreaded complication of invasive electrophysiology procedures (EPs). Their long-term impact on clinical outcomes is unknown. This study analysed the risk of death or serious cardiovascular events in patients suffering from EP-related cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis during long-term follow-up.
Out of 19 997 invasive EPs at the Karolinska University Hospital between January 1998 and September 2018, all patients with EP-related periprocedural cardiac tamponade were identified (n = 60) and matched (1:3 ratio) to a control group (n = 180). After a follow-up of 5 years, the composite primary endpoint – death from any cause, acute myocardial infarction, transitory ischaemic attack (TIA)/stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure – occurred in significantly more patients in the tamponade than in the control group [12 patients (20.0%) vs. 19 patients (10.6%); hazard ratio (HR) 2.53 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.15-5.58); P = 0.021]. This was mainly driven by a higher incidence of TIA/stroke in the tamponade than in the control group [HR 3.75 (95% CI 1.01-13.97); P = 0.049]. Death from any cause, acute myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for heart failure did not show a significant difference between the groups. Hospitalization for pericarditis occurred in significantly more patients in the tamponade than in the control group [HR 36.0 (95% CI 4.68-276.86); P = 0.001].
Patients with EP-related cardiac tamponade are at higher risk for cerebrovascular events during the first 2 weeks and hospitalization for pericarditis during the first months after index procedure. Despite the increased risk for early complications tamponade patients have a good long-term prognosis without increased risk for mortality or other serious cardiovascular events.

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References

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