There is limited information on the oncological outcomes of immediate autologous breast reconstruction in the Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the oncological outcomes of immediate one-stage autologous breast reconstruction using a free perforator flap for breast cancer patients at a single institution in Japan.
We retrospectively reviewed 239 patients who underwent immediate one-stage autologous breast reconstruction using a free perforator flap after skin- or nipple-sparing mastectomy. The whole breast was pathologically analyzed in 5-mm sections. Clinical and pathological data were collected from medical records.
For tumor stage among the 239 patients, 101 (42.3%) had stage 0, 127 (53.1%) had stage I and II, and 11 (4.6%) had stage III. Twenty-three patients (9.6%) had margin involvement in the surgical specimen. Adjuvant chemotherapy was performed in 75 patients (30%), and endocrine therapy was administered in 153 patients (64%). Radiation therapy was performed in 15 patients (6.3%) because of multiple lymph node metastases or margin involvement. With a median follow-up time of 73 mo, local recurrence was found in 3.3%, distant metastases in 2.5%, and contralateral breast cancer in 3.7%. All patients with local recurrence did not receive radiation therapy as adjuvant treatment.
Among the patients who underwent immediate one-stage autologous reconstruction after breast surgery, 3.3% had local recurrence. For patients with margin involvement, radiation therapy is a promising option.

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