To elucidate the clinical features, long-term survival, and prognostic factors for mortality among patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), including those with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive interstitial lung disease (ILD) (ANCA-ILD), which could be a subset of its variant phenotype.
We retrospectively included 76 consecutive patients between 2006 and 2014, diagnosed with MPA according to the European Medicines Agency algorithm using the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference definitions or ANCA-ILD. ILD was classified as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern using chest computed tomography.
The mean (standard deviation) age of the patients (female, 68%) was 69 (12) years. The median (interquartile range) follow-up period was 68 (33-95) months. Comorbid ILD and glomerulonephritis were observed in 44 (58%) (68% UIP) and 54 (71%) patients, respectively. Comorbid ILD was associated with low survival (P = .0563). There were 17 (39%) and 5 (16%) deaths in the ILD and non-ILD groups, respectively (P = .0404). In the ILD group, 6 and 5 of the deaths were attributed to infection and ILD progression, respectively. In the non-ILD group, 1 and 2 patients expired from subsequently developed ILD and aspiration pneumonia, respectively. Age ≥ 70 years (hazard ratio = 2.78; 95% confidential interval 1.15-6.70) and UIP (3.95; 1.60-9.77) were independent risk factors for mortality.
Age ≥ 70 years and ILD with a UIP pattern were associated with high mortality, owing to susceptibility to infection and ILD progression. A more effective and less toxic treatment is required for progressive ILD.

© 2022 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.