Directional STN-DBS leads were implanted in four healthy, non-human primates. LFPs were recorded over two weeks and again 1-4 months after implantation. Impedance was measured for two weeks post-implant without stimulation to compare the reactive tissue response to changes in LFP oscillations. Beta-band (12-30 Hz) peak power was calculated from the LFP power spectra using both common average referencing (CAR) and intra-row bipolar referencing (IRBR).
Resting-state LFPs in 2 of 4 subjects revealed a steady increase of beta power over the initial two weeks post-implant whereas the other 2 subjects showed variable changes over time. Beta power variance across days was significantly larger in the first two weeks compared to 1-4 months post-implant in all 3 long-term subjects. Further, spatial maps of beta power several hours after implantation did not correlate with those measured two weeks or 1-4 months post-implant. CAR and IRBR beta power correlated across short- and long-term time points. However, depending on the time period, subjects showed a significant bias towards larger beta power using one referencing scheme over the other. Lastly, electrode-tissue impedance increased over the two weeks post-implant but showed no significant correlation to beta power.
These results suggest that beta power in the STN may undergo significant changes following DBS lead implantation. DBS lead diameter and electrode recording configurations can affect the post-implant interpretation of oscillatory features. Such insights will be important for extrapolating results from intraoperative and externalized LFP recordings.
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