Loratadine is an antihistamine drug that shows promise as an anti-inflammatory drug, but supportive studies are lacking. We elucidated the effects and mechanisms by which loratadine inhibits inflammatory responses. Molecular components were evaluated in macrophages by nitric oxide assay, polymerase chain reaction, luciferase assay, immunoblotting, overexpression strategies and cellular thermal shift assay. At the molecular level, loratadine reduced the levels of nitric oxide, iNOS, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. Loratadine also specifically inhibited the NF-B pathway, targeting the Syk and Src proteins. Furthermore, loratadine bound Src in the bridge between SH2 and SH3, and bound Syk in the protein tyrosine kinase domain. The NF-B signaling pathway was assessed along with putative binding sites through a docking approach. The anti-inflammatory effect of loratadine was tested using mouse models of gastritis, hepatitis, colitis, and peritonitis. Stomach tissue histopathology, liver morphology, and colon length in the loratadine group were improved over the group without loratadine treatment. Taken together, loratadine inhibited the inflammatory response through the NF-B pathway by binding with the Syk and Src proteins.
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