Lung cancer screening is widely implemented and used in Europe and the US. But its effectiveness in Asian and African countries has not been evaluated. This study aims to evaluate the participation and detection rate of lung cancer in a population-based lung cancer screening program.

This cross-sectional study included a total of 282,377 eligible participants, including 55,428 at high risk of lung cancer. The age of the eligible participants was between 50 and 74 years. The reviewers considered the overall and group-specific participation rates, with factors like sex, age, and education level being also put into consideration. The primary outcomes of the study were overall and group-specific participation rates.

Of the total participants, 22,260 underwent LDCT. The multivariable logistic regression model suggested that female sex (odds ratio 1.64), former smoking (OR 1.26), lack of physical activity (1.19), and family history of lung cancer (1.73) were the primary factors associated with an increased LDCT screening participation. At a follow-up of 6 years, 78 participants in the screening group and 125 in the non-screening group had lung cancer (OR 0.93).

The research concluded that participation in LDCT screening was lower in China compared with screening participation in the US and Europe.