Resting energy expenditure (REE) may be useful for individualizing energy intake (EI) and physical activity (PA) goals, and in turn, regulating gestational weight gain (GWG). Limited research, however, has examined the association between REE and GWG. This study examined (1) change in REE from 14 to 28 gestation, (2) time-varying associations between REE and GWG, and (3) EI and PA patterns during the weeks when REE and GWG were significantly associated. Pregnant women with overweight/obesity (N = 27) participating in the Healthy Mom Zone study completed weekly point estimates of EI (back-calculation), PA (wrist-worn activity monitor), REE (mobile metabolism device), and weight (Wi-Fi scale) from 14 to 28 weeks gestation. Analyses included descriptives and time-varying effect modeling. REE fluctuated, increasing on average from 14 to 28 weeks gestation, but decreased at gestational weeks 17, 20, 21, 23, 26, and 28. Most women increased in REE; however there was large between-person variability in the amount of change. Associations between REE and GWG were small but time-varying; low REE was associated with high GWG between gestational weeks 25 to 28 when there was observably larger fluctuation in REE. Moreover, over half of the women were categorized as having excessive EI and most as low active during this time. EI needs may be overestimated and PA needs may be underestimated when REE is fluctuating, which may increase the risk for high second trimester GWG. Researchers should consider the role of REE to inform EI and PA goals to regulate GWG.
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