Endokrynologia Polska 2017 10 12() doi 10.5603/EP.a2017.0053
This study evaluated prevalence and predictors of osteoporosis and sarcopenia in men with HIV.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
220 men with HIV were screened, of which 115 men, 30-50 years-age, having at least 1-year follow-up, underwent hormonal and DEXA analysis. 40 controls were also evaluated.
Males with HIV had significantly lower BMD and Z-scores at all sites. Osteoporosis was diagnosed in 64.35%; commonest site being radius total (49.56%), followed by radius 33% (45.21%), radius ultra distal (36.52%), lumbar spine (19.13%), neck of femur (17.39%), total femur and greater trochanter (7.82% each). HIV patients had significantly lower fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), total fat percent, bone mineral content, gynoid fat, percent skeletal muscle mass (PSMM). Men with osteoporosis had higher use of anti retroviral therapy (ART), immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), tuberculosis, lower FM, LM and PSMM. Logistic regression revealed PSMM, age and delta (Δ) CD4 count (change in CD4 count after 6-12 months of ART, compared to pre-ART) were best predictors of osteoporosis. Greater PSMM was associated with decreased osteoporosis, without adjusting for any variable (Model-1), adjusting for disease duration, tuberculosis and IRIS (Model-2), and model-2 plus gonadotropins and sex steroids (Model-3). Greater ΔCD4 count and age were associated with increased osteoporosis after adjusting for different models. Sarcopenia was observed in 40% men and none in controls.
Men with decreased skeletal mass, age, severe immune dysfunction at diagnosis, having rapid increase in CD4 count following ART and IRIS have higher risk of osteoporosis in the long run.