In a sub-study of clinic styles (NCT01737710), the researchers evaluated T cell and antigen-presenting cell (APC) reactions to influenza B in AD and non-AD controls. That study intradermically or intramuscularly administered the immunology of trivalent inactivated influenza (IIV3) vaccine. In the AD pre-vaccination there were lower responses in contrast to the IFN-т EList at 58 AD and 31 Non-AD. AD also showed lower Th2 and less inflammatory cytostatic responses in APCs, which were measured in culturally supernatant flow cytometry and cytokine amounts.

In addition, AD had reduced Th1 and Th2 responses to non-specific anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 stimulation, but these responses were not substantially linked to flu-specific responses and indicated that APC’s primary involvement in the influenza specific T cell responses was decreased. Multivariate influenza-specific response modelling Pre-vaccination with influenza-specific antibody and ELISpot IFN-μ reported several T-cell and APC subsets that predicted negative or favourable defensive responses to the vaccine.

Reference: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2020.1747374