To report the clinical data in a large population of patients affected by inflammatory encephalomyelopathy.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical history, imaging studies and urodynamic findings in a series of 87 consecutive patients with inflammatory encephalomyelopathy. Age at disease onset ranged from 3 to 76 years with an average of 35.4 years. The type of bladder dysfunction, neurological impairment and spinal magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. Upper urinary tract was evaluated. The urological complications and subsequent management were reported.
The mean follow-up was 3.0 years (range from 0.5 to 6.6 yrs). Initial evaluation revealed detrusor overactivity in 53 patients (61.1%), detrusor underactivity in 34 patients (39.1%), detrusor leak point pressure greater than 40 cm water and decreased compliance in 29.9% of patients. At the latest follow-up, a total of 64 patients (73.6%) had persistent bladder dysfunction requiring treatment, mainly presenting as urinary incontinence and incomplete bladder emptying. Around 18.8% patients (13/69) experienced upper urinary tract changes. The location of spinal lesions may correspond with the type of bladder dysfunction. Higher abnormal sensory levels are associated with poor bladder recovery.
Persistent bladder dysfunction is common in inflammatory encephalomyelopathy and tend to change with the progression of disease. Evaluation must be instituted at early onset of the disease and ongoing surveillance should be offered through the entire disease process. Management can be tailored individually to the urodynamic findings for optimal preservation of bladder and renal function.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.