For a study, researchers sought to understand that Lumbar compartment syndrome is a recognized clinical condition despite getting less attention as a clinical entity. As it’s very rare, there is some disagreement over the specific presentation, diagnosis, and management approach. An analysis was done on PubMed on all the case reports of lumbar paraspinal compartment syndromes. The case reports and reviews were examined for patient demographical data, presentation, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and clinical follow-up. An absolute number of 37 cases of lumbar compartment syndrome were spotted. Overall, 91.9% arose in men with an average age of 30.9 years. Weightlifting (n=18, 48.6%) and physical exertion (n=7, 18.9%) reported for the maximum presentations. All 37.8% of cases occurred by themselves. Creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were significantly higher. Compartment pressure was high with an average of 91.8 mm Hg (SD: 44.8 mm Hg). A total of 22 cases were cured operatively (59.5%), and 15 (40.5%) were healed without surgery. In total, 19/20 (95.0%) of cases were healed operatively and reported either resolution of pain or return to baseline activities without restrictions as compared with 1/11 (9.1%) treated non-operatively. This difference between the operative and nonoperative cohorts was statistically crucial (P<0.0001). Lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome is an infrequent yet well-analyzed clinical entity. A total of 67.5% of cases were raised after weightlifting or physical activities. Generally, 40.5% of cases in the literature were treated non-operatively. According to the research, there is a clinically and statistically major difference in cases healed operatively versus nonoperatively (95.0% vs. 9.1%, P<0.0001).
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