The frequency of lung transplants has increased over the past few years. However, aspergillosis is one of the major causes of mortality among the recipients of lung transplants. Voriconazole is used to treat aspergillosis, but recent evidence relates to the use of voriconazole with a higher risk of keratinocyte carcinomas. This study aims to value the risk of keratinocyte carcinomas associated with the use of voriconazole among lung transplant recipients.

This is a population-based cohort study that included 9,599 patients who underwent a lung transplant and were exposed to antifungal medication use, including voriconazole. The primary outcome of the study was the onset of first cutaneous squamous(SCC)  or basal cell carcinoma (BCC).

During three years of median follow up, 1,031 SCCs and 347 BCCs were reported. When compared with control patients who received no antifungals, the use of voriconazole use resulted in an increased risk of SCC by 1.09-3.05 during 4-15 months. The use of voriconazole was not significantly associated with the risk of BCC; however, it was higher with itraconazole use (another voriconazole-like antifungal).

The research concluded that the use of voriconazole was associated with an increased risk of SCC among lung transplant recipients. Itraconazole, an antifungal similar to voriconazole, was linked to a higher risk of BCC.