The contribution of lung transplantation to the treatment of patients with end-stage cystic fibrosis (CF) has been debated. We aimed to describe achievable outcomes from high-volume CF and lung transplant programs. This study reports on the largest single-center experience of lung transplantation for adult and pediatric patients with CF. It also highlights the evolution of practice and outcomes over time.
A retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected Toronto Lung Transplant database was carried out. Post-transplant survival in CF was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed with log-rank tests.
From 1983 to 2016, a total of 1,885 transplants were performed at our institution, where 364 (19.3%) were CF recipients and another 39 (2.1%) were CF retransplants. The mean age at first transplant was 29.5 ± 9.7 years where 56.6% were males and 91.5% were adults. Pre-transplantation, 88 patients (24.2%) were Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC)-positive, 143 (39.3%) had diabetes mellitus, and the mean forced expiratory volume in one second was 26.0 ± 7.2%, as predicted at listing. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year probabilities of survival in adults who were BCC-negative were 94%, 70%, and 53%, respectively. Pediatric, BCC-positive, and retransplant recipients had worse survival than adult patients who were BCC-negative. Strategies to improve the donor pool did not affect survival but possibly reduced waitlist mortality. For the entire cohort, the most common causes of death after lung transplant were infection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction.
Lung transplantation for CF provides excellent short- and long-term outcomes. These results strongly support lung transplantation as the standard of care for patients with CF having advanced lung disease.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.