Background Stratification of cardiovascular risk in patients with ischemic stroke is important as it may inform management strategies. We aimed to develop a machine-learning-derived prognostic model for the prediction of cardiovascular risk in ischemic stroke patients.
Two prospective stroke registries with consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients were used as training/validation and test datasets. The outcome assessed was major adverse cardiovascular event, defined as non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death during 2-year follow-up. The variables selection was performed with the LASSO technique. The algorithms XGBoost (Extreme Gradient Boosting), Random Forest and Support Vector Machines were selected according to their performance. The evaluation of the classifier was performed by bootstrapping the dataset 1000 times and performing cross-validation by splitting in 60% for the training samples and 40% for the validation samples.
The model included age, gender, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, arterial hypertension, statin treatment before stroke onset, prior anticoagulant treatment (in case of atrial fibrillation), creatinine, cervical artery stenosis, anticoagulant treatment at discharge (in case of atrial fibrillation), and statin treatment at discharge. The best accuracy was measured by the XGBoost classifier. In the validation dataset, the area under the curve was 0.648 (95%CI:0.619-0.675) and the balanced accuracy was 0.58 ± 0.14. In the test dataset, the corresponding values were 0.59 and 0.576.
We propose an externally validated machine-learning-derived model which includes readily available parameters and can be used for the estimation of cardiovascular risk in ischemic stroke patients.

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