Fibromyalgia (FM) diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians due to a lack of objective diagnostic tools. One proposed solution is the use of quantitative ultrasound (US) techniques, such as image texture analysis, which has demonstrated discriminatory capabilities with other chronic pain conditions. From this, we propose the use of image texture variables to construct and compare two machine learning models (support vector machine [SVM] and logistic regression) for differentiating between the trapezius muscle in healthy and FM patients. US videos of the right and left trapezius muscle were acquired from healthy ( = 51) participants and those with FM ( = 57). The videos were converted into 64,800 skeletal muscle regions of interest (ROIs) using MATLAB. The ROIs were filtered by an algorithm using the complex wavelet structural similarity index (CW-SSIM), which removed ROIs that were similar. Thirty-one texture variables were extracted from the ROIs, which were then used in nested cross-validation to construct SVM and elastic net regularized logistic regression models. The generalized performance accuracy of both models was estimated and confirmed with a final validation on a holdout test set. The predicted generalized performance accuracy of the SVM and logistic regression models was computed to be 83.9 ± 2.6% and 65.8 ± 1.7%, respectively. The models achieved accuracies of 84.1%, and 66.0% on the final holdout test set, validating performance estimates. Although both machine learning models differentiate between healthy trapezius muscle and that of patients with FM, only the SVM model demonstrated clinically relevant performance levels.
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