Non-invasive measures of neuroinflammatory processes in humans could substantially aid diagnosis and therapeutic development for many disorders, including chronic pain. Several proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H-MRS) metabolites have been linked with glial activity (i.e. choline and myo-inositol) and found to be altered in chronic pain patients, but their role in the neuroinflammatory cascade is not well known. Our multimodal study evaluated resting fMRI connectivity and H-MRS metabolite concentration in insula cortex in 43 patients suffering from fibromyalgia, a chronic centralized pain disorder previously demonstrated to include a neuroinflammatory component, and 16 healthy controls. Patients demonstrated elevated choline (but not myo-inositol) in anterior insula (p=0.03), with greater choline levels linked with worse pain interference (r=0.41, p=0.01). In addition, reduced resting functional connectivity between anterior insula and putamen was associated with both pain interference (whole brain analysis, pcorrected<0.01) and elevated anterior insula choline (r=-0.37, p=0.03). In fact, anterior insula/putamen connectivity statistically mediated the link between anterior insula choline and pain interference (p<0.01), highlighting the pathway by which neuroinflammation can impact clinical pain dysfunction. In order to further elucidate the molecular substrates of the effects observed, we investigated how putative neuroinflammatory H-MRS metabolites are linked with ex-vivo tissue inflammatory markers in a nonhuman primate model of neuroinflammation. Results demonstrated that cortical choline levels were correlated with glial fibrillary acidic protein, a known marker for astrogliosis (Spearman r=0.49, p=0.03). Choline, a putative neuroinflammatory H-MRS assessed metabolite elevated in fibromyalgia and associated with pain interference, may be linked with astrogliosis in these patients.
Strictureplasty for Crohn’s disease of the small bowel in the biologic era: long-term outcomes and risk factors for recurrence.
April 20, 2020
May 26, 2020