Several clinical studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated lower incidence of adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes associated with the use of iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) than low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) in patients with variable risk profiles undergoing intra-arterial interventional procedures. However, the association of contrast-type and major adverse renal and cardiovascular events (MARCE) has not been studied via comprehensive and robust real-world data analyses in patients with comorbid conditions considered at risk for post-procedural acute kidney injury (AKI). The objective of this study was therefore to retrospectively assess the MARCE rates comparing IOCM with LOCM in at-risk patients receiving iodinated intra-arterial contrast media using a real-world inpatient data source.
Patients who underwent a diagnostic or treatment procedure with intra-arterial IOCM or LOCM administration were identified using the Premier Healthcare Database. Patient subgroups including those with diabetes, heart failure, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1-4, CKD 3-4, or diagnosis of chronic total occlusion (CTO) were formed. Subgroups with combinations of diabetes and CKD 3-4 with and without CTO were also investigated. We compared the primary endpoint of MARCE (composite of AKI, AKI requiring dialysis, acute myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischemic attack, stent occlusion/thrombosis, or death) after IOCM versus LOCM administration via adjusted multivariable regression analyses.
A total of 536,013 inpatient visits met the primary inclusion and exclusion criteria (IOCM = 133,192; LOCM = 402,821). After multivariable modeling, the use of IOCM was associated with a significantly lower incidence of MARCE than LOCM in patients with CKD 1-4, CKD 3-4, diabetes, or heart failure, with greatest absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 2.4% (p < 0.0001) in CKD 3-4 patients (relative risk reduction [RRR] = 13.8%, number needed to treat [NNT] = 43). Additionally, ARR associated with IOCM increased to 3.5% (p < 0.0001) in patients with combined comorbidities of diabetes and CKD 3-4 (RRR = 19.1%, NNT = 29). Statistically significant risk reduction was also found for the use of IOCM among patients who underwent revascularization for CTO (ARR = 1.6% [p < 0.0001], RRR = 22.3%, NNT = 62).
Intra-arterial administration using IOCM in at-risk patients is associated with lower rates of MARCE than the use of LOCM. This difference is especially apparent in patients with a combination of CKD 3-4 and diabetes and in patients with CTO, providing real-world data validation with meaningful NNT in favor of IOCM.

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.