Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy, affecting 1 in 15 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The disruption of the inner blood-retina barrier (BRB) has been largely investigated and attributed the primary role in the pathogenesis and progression in DME, but there is increasing evidence regarding the role of outer BRB, separating the RPE from the underlying choriocapillaris, in the occurrence and evolution of DME. The development of novel imaging technologies has led to major improvement in the field of structural analysis of the macula allowing us to delve deeper into the pathogenesis of DME and expanding our vision regarding this condition. In this review we gathered the results of studies that investigated specific outer BRB optical coherence tomography parameters in patients with DM with the aim to outline the current status of its role in the pathogenesis and progression of DME and identify new research pathways contributing to the advancement of knowledge in the understanding of this condition.
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