Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a major public health issue worldwide and entails a high burden of cardiovascular events and mortality. Dyslipidaemia is common in patients with CKD and it is characterized by a highly atherogenic profile with relatively low levels of HDL-cholesterol and high levels of triglyceride and oxidized LDL-cholesterol. Overall, current literature indicates that lowering LDL-cholesterol is beneficial for preventing major atherosclerotic events in patients with CKD and in kidney transplant recipients while the evidence is less clear in patients on dialysis. Lipid lowering treatment is recommended in all patients with stage 3 CKD or worse, independently of baseline LDL-cholesterol levels. Statin and ezetimibe are the cornerstones in the management of dyslipidaemia in patients with CKD, however alternative and emerging lipid-lowering therapies may acquire a central role in near future. This position paper endorsed by the Italian Society of Nephrology aims at providing useful information on the topic of dyslipidaemia in CKD and at assisting decision making in the management of these patients.
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