Gynecological cancers affect a growing number of women globally, with approximately 1.3 million women diagnosed in 2018. Menopausal symptoms are a significant health concern after treatment for gynecological cancers and may result from oncologic treatments such as premenopausal bilateral oophorectomy, ovarian failure associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and anti-estrogenic effects of maintenance endocrine therapy. Additionally, with the growing availability of testing for pathogenic gene variants such as BRCA1/2 and Lynch syndrome, there is an increasing number of women undergoing risk-reducing oophorectomy, which in most cases will be before age 45 years and will induce surgical menopause. Not all menopausal symptoms require treatment, but patients with cancer may experience more severe symptoms compared with women undergoing natural menopause. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of the long-term implications of early menopause, including bone loss, cognitive decline and increased cardiovascular risk. Systemic hormone therapy is well established as the most effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms and vaginal (topical) estrogen therapy is effective for genitourinary symptoms. However, the role of hormone receptors in many gynecological cancers and their treatment pose a challenge to the management of menopausal symptoms after cancer. Consequently, the use of menopausal hormone therapy in this setting can be difficult for clinicians to navigate and this article aims to provide current, comprehensive guidance for the use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy in women who have had, or are at risk of developing, gynecological cancer to assist with these treatment decisions.
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