European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society 2017 04 2626(144) pii 10.1183/16000617.0122-2016
At least 10% of patients with interstitial lung disease present monogenic lung fibrosis suspected on familial aggregation of pulmonary fibrosis, specific syndromes or early age of diagnosis. Approximately 25% of families have an identified mutation in genes mostly involved in telomere homeostasis, and more rarely in surfactant homeostasis.Beyond pathophysiological knowledge, detection of these mutations has practical consequence for patients. For instance, mutations involved in telomere homeostasis are associated with haematological complications after lung transplantation and may require adapted immunosuppression. Moreover, relatives may benefit from a clinical and genetic evaluation that should be specifically managed.The field of genetics of pulmonary fibrosis has made great progress in the last 10 years, raising specific problems that should be addressed by a specialised team.