Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections affecting individuals of different ages worldwide. Antimicrobial agents are usually the first-line treatment for UTIs, and the use of the prescribed antibiotic is escalating, resulting in increased rates of bacterial resistance and UTI recurrence. The current study aimed to identify the causative bacteria in Jordan, to explore their resistance pattern to antibiotics, and to describe drug-related problems associated with UTI management.
This prospective, descriptive study was conducted in two major health institutions in two cities in Jordan over a period of six months. The study population included inpatients and outpatients diagnosed with UTIs. Patients’ data were collected directly from patients using data collection sheet and from patients’ charts.
A total of 273 patients were included, of whom 56.4% were women. Urine cultures were obtained from 81% of the patients. E. coli was the most common causative pathogen (50.6%), followed by K. pneumonia (10.8%). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E.coli was the most commonly detected organism across all types of UTIs. Ceftriaxone and imipenem/cilastatin were most commonly administered to hospitalized patients, whilst ciprofloxacin and co-triamzaxole were the most commonly prescribed in outpatient clinics. The susceptibility results for parenteral antibiotics showed high rates of resistance to cefazolin and ticarcillin. Additionally, high rates of resistance to fluoroquinolones were identified. Further, several drug-related problems were identified. High rates of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics were detected. Drug-related problems (i.e., inappropriate antibiotic dosage, unnecessary antibiotic prescribing, inappropriate duration of therapy, and prescribing of ineffective antibiotics) were relatively common.
The present study highlights the need for clinical pharmacists to manage the high level of drug related problems by providing updated information about proper drug selection, rational drug use, and patient education and counselling.

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