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Manifestations and mechanisms of myocardial lipotoxicity in obesity.

Manifestations and mechanisms of myocardial lipotoxicity in obesity.
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Sletten AC, Peterson LR, Schaffer JE,


Sletten AC, Peterson LR, Schaffer JE, (click to view)

Sletten AC, Peterson LR, Schaffer JE,

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Journal of internal medicine 2018 01 13() doi 10.1111/joim.12728
Abstract

Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity. Accumulation of excess lipid in non-adipose cells of the cardiovascular system can cause cell dysfunction and cell death, a process known as lipotoxicity. Lipotoxicity has been modeled in mice using high fat diet feeding, inbred lines with mutations in leptin receptor signaling, and in genetically engineered mice with enhanced myocardial fatty acid uptake, altered lipid droplet homeostasis, or decreased cardiac fatty acid oxidation. These studies, along with findings in cell culture model systems, indicate that the molecular pathophysiology of lipid overload involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, alterations in autophagy, de novo ceramide synthesis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and changes in gene expression. We highlight recent advances that extend our understanding of the impact of obesity and altered lipid metabolism on cardiac function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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