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March 2018 Briefing – Pathology

March 2018 Briefing – Pathology
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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for March 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Novel Metabolites Provide Insight to Health Benefits of Coffee

FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Metabolomic profiling highlights potential mechanisms to explain coffee’s health effects, according to a study published online March 15 in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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Rate of MI, Stroke Higher After Respiratory Infection

FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The risk for myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke remains higher after laboratory-confirmed Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza, according to a study published March 21 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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Montreal Parkinson Risk of Dementia Scale Deemed Accurate

FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The office-based, eight-item Montreal Parkinson Risk of Dementia Scale is a valid predictor of development of dementia, according to a study published online March 26 in JAMA Neurology.

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Lag in Progress Against Lung CA Mortality in Midwest, Appalachia

FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In the Midwest and Appalachia there are areas where progress against lung cancer mortality among women is lagging compared with the rest of the nation, according to a study published March 30 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Non-Invasive Test Can Detect Urothelial Cancer

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — UroSEEK, which uses DNA recovered from cells shed into urine, can detect urothelial cancer, according to a study published online March 20 in eLife.

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Islet Transplantation Improves Quality of Life in T1DM

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There are significant improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following islet transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes complicated by severe hypoglycemia, according to a study published online March 21 in Diabetes Care.

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Novel Interstitium Has Been Identified in Human Tissues

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A previously unrecognized interstitium has been identified in human tissues, according to a study published online March 27 in Scientific Reports.

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Relapse in Major Depression Linked to Brain Cortical Changes

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), relapse is associated with brain cortical changes over two years, according to a study published online March 28 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Molecular Minimal Disease in Remission Predicts AML Relapse

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The detection of molecular minimal residual disease is associated with increased relapse rates in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), according to a study published in the March 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Liquids in E-Cigarettes Are Heterogeneous, Frequently Toxic

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The e-liquids used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a heterogeneous group, and there is a positive correlation between the number of chemicals contained in the liquid and the likelihood of its toxicity, according to a study published online March 27 in PLOS Biology.

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Reduced Overall Survival for Alcohol-Related Liver Cancer

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Reduced overall survival (OS) is seen for patients with alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), according to a study published online March 28 in Cancer.

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1980 to 2014 Saw Decrease in U.S. Mortality From Infectious Diseases

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There were declines in mortality from most categories of infectious diseases between 1980 and 2014 in the United States, according to a study published in the March 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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EHR Usability Contributes to Possible Patient Harm Events

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Electronic health record (EHR) usability may contribute to possible patient harm events, according to a research letter published in the March 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Amygdala Neurons Reduced in Adulthood With Autism

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In neurotypical development, there is an increase in the number of mature neurons in the basal and accessory basal nuclei, whereas an initial excess of amygdala neurons is seen during childhood in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), followed by a reduction in adulthood, according to a study published online March 20 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Hepatitis C Screening Increasing Among Baby Boomers

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For baby boomers, born between 1945 and 1965, the odds of hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening increase over time, although the rates of screening are low, according to a study published online March 27 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Complete Genome Sequence Can Be ID’d From Amniotic Fluid

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The complete genome sequence of fetuses can be elucidated from amniotic fluid, according to a study published online March 15 in Clinical Chemistry.

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Ethical Duties ID’d for Short-Term Global Health Experiences

MONDAY, March 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In a position paper published online March 27 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, ethical obligations have been detailed for physicians participating in short-term global health experiences (STEGHs).

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Vigil Immunotherapy Tolerated Well for Recurrent Ovarian CA Tx

MONDAY, March 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Vigil immunotherapy shows good tolerability for recurrent ovarian cancer patients, and PARP 7, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein, may play a significant role in survival for ovarian cancer, according to two studies presented at the Society of Gynecologic Oncology’s Annual Meeting on Women’s Cancer, held from March 24 to 27 in New Orleans.

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Genetic Assay of PAP Tests May Help Dx Endometrial, Ovarian CA

MONDAY, March 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — PapSEEK, which incorporates assays for mutations in 18 genes and for aneuploidy in DNA recovered from fluids obtained during a routine Pap test, may aid in detection of endometrial and ovarian cancers, according to a study published online March 21 in Science Translational Medicine.

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BMI Linked to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in Chronic Hep B

MONDAY, March 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), body mass index (BMI) is significantly associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with the risk more pronounced for women than men, according to a research letter published online March 22 in JAMA Oncology.

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Lean Approach May Help Tackle Burnout in Health Care Providers

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The Lean approach, which emphasizes reducing waste and improving customer value by focusing on the big picture, can be used to address physician burnout, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Neural Markers of Depression Resilience ID’d in Female Teens

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Adolescent females at high familial risk of depression who do not go on to develop depression have compensatory functional connectivity patterns in emotion regulatory networks, according to a study published online March 21 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Calorie Restriction Linked to Sustained Metabolic Adaptation

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Calorie restriction (CR) over two years is associated with considerable weight loss, and with lower than expected energy expenditure (EE) relative to the weight loss, according to a study published online March 22 in Cell Metabolism.

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Unique Risks Associated With Texting Medical Orders

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Despite the popularity, convenience, and speed of texting medical orders, there are unique and alarming risks associated with the practice, according to a report published in Drug Topics.

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Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors in T2DM Linked to IBD

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease among patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online March 21 in The BMJ.

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Hydrochlorothiazide Tied to Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Risk

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Use of the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is associated with a substantially increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Soy-Based Formula Tied to Reproductive Differences

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Infants given soy-based formula have reproductive system differences compared with those given cow-milk formula or breast milk, according to a study published online March 1 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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H. Pylori Treatment Tied to Lower Metachronous Gastric Cancer Risk

WEDNESDAY, March 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in patients who underwent endoscopic resection of early-stage gastric cancer or high-grade adenoma is associated with a reduced rate of metachronous gastric cancer, according to a study published in the March 22 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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HIV Incidence Down in All Except Men Who Have Sex With Men

WEDNESDAY, March 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — From 2008 to 2015, there was a decrease in modeled HIV incidence in all transmission risk groups except men who have sex with men (MSM), according to research published online March 20 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Cardiovascular Health Declining in the United States

WEDNESDAY, March 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Trends in racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in cardiovascular health decreased from 1988 to 2014, with the decrease attributed to worsening cardiovascular health among whites, according to a study published online March 20 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Oxyntomodulin Augments Glucose Homeostasis

WEDNESDAY, March 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), oxyntomodulin (OXM) significantly augments glucose-dependent insulin secretion, according to a study published online March 15 in Diabetes.

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Blueprint Being Developed to Address Physician Burnout

WEDNESDAY, March 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A new, three-pronged approach is being applied to develop a blueprint for addressing physician burnout, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Personal Health Info Found in Recycling at Five Hospitals

TUESDAY, March 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A considerable amount of personal health information (PHI) and personally identifiable information (PII) was found in the recycling at five Canadian teaching hospitals, according to a research letter published in the March 20 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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In-Flight Transmission of Respiratory Diseases Low

TUESDAY, March 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The probability of direct transmission of respiratory diseases is low for passengers on transcontinental U.S. flights not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger, according to a study published online March 19 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Tamoxifen, Raloxifene Linked to Improvements in MD in Mice

TUESDAY, March 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Tamoxifen and raloxifene are associated with improvements in muscular dystrophy caused by mutations of the Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene in a mouse model, according to a study published in the April issue of The American Journal of Pathology.

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Prior Authorization Negatively Impacts Clinical Outcomes

MONDAY, March 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The burdens associated with prior authorization (PA) are high and include a negative impact on clinical outcomes, reported by 92 percent of physicians, according to the results of a survey conducted for the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Reduced Cortical Thickness ID’d in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Reduced cortical thickness is seen in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) versus controls, with multiple regions of reduced thickness seen in the superior frontal lobe in females with OSA, according to a study published online March 6 in PLOS ONE.

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Higher Burden of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in U.S. Blacks

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The burden of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is disproportionately high among blacks in the United States, according to a study published online March 15 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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BMI As Predictor of CVD Risk May Be More Susceptible to Bias

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The J-shaped correlation seen for body mass index (BMI) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is susceptible to confounding due to pre-existing comorbidities, according to a study published online March 15 in the European Heart Journal.

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Hep C Compounds Alcoholism’s Effect on Brain Volume

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Alcohol dependence has deleterious effects on frontal cortical volumes that are compounded by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and drug dependence, according to a study published online March 14 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Poor Identified

THURSDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Improving colorectal cancer screening rates among lower-income populations requires addressing structural, personal, and health care system barriers, according to research published in the April issue of Diseases of the Colon & Rectum.

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Grilled Meat, Chicken Ups Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in U.S. Adults

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Open-flame and/or high-temperature cooking methods (such as grilling/barbecuing, broiling, or roasting) to prepare chicken and red meat are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a study published online March 12 in Diabetes Care.

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Gut Bacteria May Be Tied to Brain Dysfunction From Sepsis

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Gut bacteria may be tied to sepsis-related brain dysfunction, according to a study published recently in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Fewer SIDS Cases Result From Genetic Heart Disease Causes

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Genetic heart diseases (GHDs) cause fewer cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) than previously thought, according to a study published in the March 20 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Higher Exposure to Air Pollution Adds to CVD Risk for Blacks

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Blacks have significantly higher exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (particles with median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5]), with exposure associated with elevated blood glucose, worse endothelial function, and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a study published online March 15 in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

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Zika-Tied Birth Defects in 7 Percent of Infected Pregnant Women

WEDNESDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Seven percent of pregnant women with symptomatic Zika virus (ZIKV) infection have birth defects possibly associated with ZIKV infection, according to a study published in the March 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Too Few Early Breast CA Patients Given Formal Genetic Counseling

WEDNESDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Many women with early-stage breast cancer with indications for formal genetic risk evaluation do not receive formal counseling, according to a study published online March 12 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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U.S. Spends Twice As Much for Similar Health Care Utilization

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Spending on health care is much higher in the United States than other high-income countries, but utilization rates are similar, according to a study published in the March 13 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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IL-6 Levels Predict Response to ECT in Depressive Disorder

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with major depressive disorder, interleukin-6 (IL-6) may predict benefit from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), according to a study published recently in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

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Low-Level Lead Exposure Ups CVD Mortality Risk in U.S. Adults

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and ischemic heart disease mortality, according to a study published online March 12 in The Lancet Public Health.

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Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Tied to Increased β-Amyloid

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Baseline excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is associated with increased β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in elderly individuals without dementia, according to a study published online March 12 in JAMA Neurology.

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Vit D Concentration Associated With Reduced Risk of Cancer

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Higher plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with reduced risk of total cancer in a Japanese population, according to a study published online March 7 in The BMJ.

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More Evidence Colonoscopy Cuts Colorectal Cancer Mortality

MONDAY, March 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Screening colonoscopy significantly reduces mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC), according to a Veterans Affairs study published online March 13 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Three-Pronged Approach Can Improve Physician Engagement

MONDAY, March 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The three-pronged approach implemented by one practice successfully improved physician engagement, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Genetic Variations Impacting Empathy Tied to Psych Issues

MONDAY, March 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Genetic variations associated with empathy play a role in psychiatric conditions and traits, including schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa, and extraversion, according to a study published online March 11 in Translational Psychiatry.

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Over 5,100 Noncongenital Zika Cases Reported in U.S. in 2016

MONDAY, March 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A total of 5,168 noncongenital Zika virus disease cases were reported from U.S. states and the District of Columbia in 2016, with 95 percent of cases identified in travelers returning from Zika virus-affected areas, according to research published in the March 9 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Current Tobacco Smoke Exposure Doesn’t Obstruct Peds Airflow

THURSDAY, March 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Current tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) is not associated with airflow obstruction among school-aged children, while prenatal smoking is associated with airflow obstruction in children with asthma, according to a study published in the March issue of CHEST.

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No Link Found Between Marijuana Use, Kidney Function

THURSDAY, March 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There are no significant associations between current or past self-reported marijuana use and measures of kidney function, according to a study published recently in the American Journal of Medicine.

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Most Women Willing to Trade Off Benefits, Risks of Breast Screening

THURSDAY, March 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — On average, women are willing to accept some additional unnecessary follow-ups and costs for additional cancer detection, although there is considerable heterogeneity in preferences for screening, according to a study published in the February issue of Value in Health.

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FDA Approves First Screening Tests for Tickborne Parasite

WEDNESDAY, March 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The first set of blood screening tests for the tickborne parasite Babesia microti have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Higher Sun Exposure Tied to Lower Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

WEDNESDAY, March 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) — High sun exposure may lower the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online March 7 in Neurology.

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Single PSA Screening Doesn’t Cut Prostate Cancer Mortality

TUESDAY, March 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A single prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is not associated with a significant difference in prostate cancer mortality after follow-up of 10 years, but is associated with increased detection of low-risk prostate cancer, according to a study published in the March 6 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Volatile Organic Compounds in Feces Tied to Diet Response

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Fecal levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are associated with response to dietary intervention in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), according to a study published in the March issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Limited Evidence for Clinical Validity, Utility of ctDNA

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There is little evidence for the clinical validity or utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) assays for solid tumors, according to a special article published online March 5 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Higher Positive Cardiomyopathy Genetic Detection Rates for Whites

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Compared with underrepresented minorities, white individuals have significantly higher positive detection rates and lower rates of inconclusive results on cardiomyopathy genetic testing, according to a study published online Feb. 28 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Excretion of Volatile Organic Compounds Up in Teen E-Smokers

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Adolescents smoking electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) only have significantly higher excretion of volatile organic chemical compounds than non-smokers, although the levels are lower than among those using cigarettes in addition to e-cigarettes, according to a study published online March 5 in Pediatrics.

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Calcium ± Vit D Supplements Up Risk of Colon Adenomas, Polyps

FRIDAY, March 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Calcium supplements, taken with or without vitamin D, may increase the risk of sessile serrated adenomas or polyps (SSA/Ps), according to a study published online March 1 in Gut.

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Researchers ID Five Distinct Adult-Onset Diabetes Subgroups

FRIDAY, March 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Reclassification of diabetes into subgroups shows differing courses of disease progression and risk of diabetic complications, according to a study published online March 1 in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.

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Conventional Hemodialysis Induces Drop in Cerebral Blood Flow

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — In elderly patients, conventional hemodialysis induces a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), according to a study published online March 1 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Retinopathy Associated With Accelerated Cognitive Decline

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Retinopathy is associated with accelerated rates of 20-year cognitive decline, according to a study published online Feb. 28 in Neurology.

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Exposure to Metformin In Utero Ups Risk of Being Overweight

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Children exposed to metformin in utero have an increased risk of being overweight at age 4 years, according to research published online Feb. 27 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

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S. epidermidis Producing 6-HAP May Protect From Skin Neoplasia

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis producing 6-N-hydroxyaminopurine (6-HAP) may provide protection against skin neoplasia, according to research published online Feb. 28 in Scientific Advances.

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Higher Nut Consumption May Cut Recurrence, Death in Colon CA

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with stage III colon cancer, nut intake, specifically tree nut intake, is associated with reduced incidence of cancer recurrence and mortality, according to a study published online Feb. 28 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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