Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) are prone to autoimmune disorders. Although most patients with TS are diagnosed at younger ages, delayed diagnosis is not rare.
A 31-year-old woman was presented with facial edema, chest tightness and dyspnea. She had primary amenorrhea. Physical examination revealed short stature, dry skin and coarse hair. Periorbital edema with puffy eyelids were also noticed with mild goiter. Bilateral cardiac enlargement, distant heart sounds and pulsus paradoxus, in combination with hepatomegaly and jugular venous distention were observed. Her hircus and pubic hair was absent. The development of her breast was at 1st tanner period and gynecological examination revealed infantile vulva. Echocardiography suggested massive pericardial effusion. She was diagnosed with cardiac tamponade based on low systolic pressure, decreased pulse pressure and pulsus paradoxus. Pericardiocentesis was performed. Thyroid function test and thyroid ultrasound indicated Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and severe hypothyroidism. Sex hormone test revealed hypergonadotropin hypogonadism. Further karyotyping revealed a karyotype of 45, X [21]/46, X, i(X) (q10) [29] and she was diagnosed with mosaic + variant type of TS. L-T4 supplement, estrogen therapy, and antiosteoporosis treatment was initiated. Euthyroidism and complete resolution of the pericardial effusion was obtained within 2 months.
Hypothyroidism should be considered in the patients with pericardial effusion. The association between autoimmune thyroid diseases and TS should be kept in mind. Both congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases should be screened in patients with TS.