Risk of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) transmission is highly dependent on the presence of preexisting maternal immunity, with the lowest rates observed in CMV-seroimmune populations. Among infants of CMV-seroimmune women, those who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of acquiring cCMV infection as compared to HIV-unexposed infants. To better understand the risk factors of nonprimary cCMV transmission in HIV-infected women, we performed a case-control study in which CMV-specific plasma antibody responses from 19 CMV-transmitting and 57 CMV-nontransmitting women with chronic CMV/HIV coinfection were evaluated for the ability to predict the risk of cCMV infection. Primary multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis revealed an association between epithelial-tropic CMV neutralizing titers and a reduced risk of cCMV transmission (odds ratio [OR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], .03-.93; P = .04), although this effect was not significant following correction for multiple comparisons (false-discovery rate, 0.12). Exploratory analysis of the CMV specificity of plasma antibodies revealed that immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses against the glycoprotein B (gB) neutralizing epitope AD-2 had a borderline association with low risk of transmission (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, .51-1.00; P = .05), although this was not confirmed in a post hoc plasma anti-AD-2 IgG blocking assay. Our data suggest that maternal neutralizing antibody responses may play a role in protection against cCMV in HIV/CMV-coinfected populations.
Maternal Antibody Responses and Nonprimary Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection of HIV-1-Exposed Infants.