Increased gluten intake is associated with an increased risk of type-2 diabetes. But if maternal gluten intake can increase the risk of type-2 diabetes in offspring is not clear. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between maternal gluten intake and the risk of type-1 diabetes in offspring. 

This is a national prospective cohort study conducted on a total of 91,745 women who underwent 101,142 pregnancies. The women were given a food frequency questionnaire at week 25 of pregnancy, which included 360 food items. The questionnaire suggested maternal gluten intake, and the incidence of type-1 diabetes in offspring was confirmed through the registry linkage. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of type-1 diabetes in offspring.

Out of 91,745 women, 70,188 filled out the food frequency questionnaire. After multivariable adjustment, 65,529 women with 67,565 pregnancies were included. The average gluten intake was 13.0 g/day (7-20 g/day). A total of 247 children (0.37%) had type-diabetes. The risk of type-1 diabetes in offspring increased proportionally with an increase in gluten intake. The offsprings of mothers with the highest gluten intake were at a twofold higher risk of type-1 diabetes than those with the least gluten intake. 

The research concluded that high gluten intake during pregnancy is related to an increased risk of type-1 diabetes is offspring.