Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for May 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

FDA Issues Final Guidance on Inhalational Anthrax

THURSDAY, May 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Final guidance has been issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to assist in the development of drugs for the prevention of inhalational anthrax for individuals who may have been exposed but who have not yet displayed related signs or symptoms.

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Oral Propranolol Seems Safe for Infantile Hemangioma

THURSDAY, May 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The safety profile of oral propranolol seems to be good for children with infantile hemangioma, according to a study published online May 29 in Pediatrics.

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ACS Updates Colorectal Cancer Screening to Start at Age 45

WEDNESDAY, May 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening should begin at age 45 for people at average risk, according to updated guidelines from the American Cancer Society published online May 30 in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

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Genomic Medicine Will Help Shift Cardio Care to Proactive Approach

WEDNESDAY, May 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Genomic medicine is likely to help clinical care shift from a reactive to a proactive approach, especially in the field of cardiovascular medicine, according to a scientific statement from the American Heart Association published online May 29 in Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine.

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Worse Survival for BRCA Germline Mutation Carriers in Pancreatic CA

WEDNESDAY, May 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) — BRCA1/BRCA2 germline mutation carriers with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have worse survival after resection, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons.

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Prediction Tool Helps Tailor Lung Cancer Screening to Patients

TUESDAY, May 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Personalizing the harm-benefit assessment of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer can inform patient-centered screening decisions, according to a study published online May 29 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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FDA Approves Palynziq for Phenylketonuria

FRIDAY, May 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Palynziq (pegvaliase-pqpz) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat phenylketonuria, or PKU.

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Increase in Tx Candidates With 2017 Hypertension Guidelines

FRIDAY, May 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association hypertension guideline is associated with an increase in the proportion of adults recommended for antihypertensive treatment compared with the 2014 guideline, according to a study published online May 23 in JAMA Cardiology.

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CDC IDs Outbreak Trends Tied to Treated Recreational Water

FRIDAY, May 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Outbreaks associated with treated recreational water with confirmed infectious etiology are usually caused by Cryptosporidium, Legionella, or Pseudomonas, according to research published in the May 18 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Severe Atopic Eczema Tied to Higher CV Disease Risk

FRIDAY, May 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Adults with severe atopic eczema are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, according to a study published online May 23 in The BMJ.

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Congress Approves Bill Expanding Private Care for VA Patients

THURSDAY, May 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Patients served by the beleaguered Veterans Affairs health system may have wider access to private care, thanks to a bill approved Wednesday by the Senate. President Donald Trump is known to support the bill, which now awaits his signature.

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Neurologists Identify New Type of Vertigo

THURSDAY, May 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A hyperactive and asymmetric velocity-storage mechanism may be responsible for intermittent attacks of vertigo in some patients with recurrent spontaneous vertigo (RSV) of unknown etiology, according to a study published online May 23 in Neurology.

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Ingestible Bio-Electronic Device Could Monitor GI Health

THURSDAY, May 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) — An ingestible micro-bio-electronic device (IMBED) could be used for in situ biomolecular detection based on environmentally resilient biosensor bacteria and luminescence readout electronics, according to a study published in the May 25 issue of Science.

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Global Variation in Personal Health Care Access and Quality

THURSDAY, May 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There is considerable global variation in personal health care access and quality, according to a study published online May 23 in The Lancet.

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PSA Level Three Months After Radiation Tx May Predict Outcome

THURSDAY, May 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels three months after radiotherapy (RT) are strong markers of prostate cancer outcomes for patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease, according to a study published online May 4 in Cancer.

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Inverse Link for Plasma 25(OH)D Concentration, Risk of T2DM

WEDNESDAY, May 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There is an inverse association for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration with diabetes risk, according to a study published online April 19 in PLOS ONE.

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From 2008 to 2014, Prostate Cancer Testing, Treatment Down

TUESDAY, May 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Fewer men are being screened for, diagnosed with, and treated for prostate cancer, according to a study published online May 21 in Cancer.

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IBD Associated With Increased Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

TUESDAY, May 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — There is a significantly increased risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to a study published online May 21 in Gut.

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CDC: No Change in Level of Uninsured in U.S. in 2017

TUESDAY, May 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Overall, 9.1 percent of individuals in the United States were uninsured in 2017, which was not significantly different from the level in 2016, according to a report published online May 22 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Centers for Health Statistics.

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Language Used in Medical Record Can Affect Patient Care

FRIDAY, May 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Stigmatizing language used in medical records to describe patients can influence medical students and residents in terms of their attitudes towards the patient and their clinical decision-making, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Two Novel Immune-Response Clusters Identified to RSV

FRIDAY, May 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Two novel immune-response clusters have been identified to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and they are associated with first- and second-year recurrent wheeze, according to a study published online May 7 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Breath Test Shows Promise for Diagnosis of Esophagogastric CA

FRIDAY, May 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Breath analysis shows potential for noninvasive diagnosis of esophagogastric cancer (OGC), according to a study published online May 17 in JAMA Oncology.

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Molecular Basis for Varied Presentations of ETEC Explored

FRIDAY, May 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The EtpA adhesion molecule, which is secreted by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain H10407, is a dominant ETEC blood group A-specific lectin/hemagglutinin, according to a study published online May 17 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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V600E BRAF Mutation Tied to Worse Survival in CRC Liver Mets

FRIDAY, May 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), the presence of the V600E BRAF mutation is associated with worse prognosis, according to a study published online May 16 in JAMA Surgery.

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More Variants in DCM-Tied Genes in Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy

THURSDAY, May 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Patients with alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) have more variants in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)-associated genes than those without ACM, according to a study published in the May 22 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Better Diet Quality Associated With Larger Brain Volume

WEDNESDAY, May 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Better diet quality, including high intake of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, dairy, nuts, and fish, is associated with larger brain volume, according to a study published online May 16 in Neurology.

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Nonprofit Manufacturer Could Keep Generic Drug Costs Down

WEDNESDAY, May 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A nonprofit manufacturer could help keep generic drug prices down and maintain their supply, according to a perspective piece published in the May 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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New Rabies Test Could Radically Change Testing, Treatment

WEDNESDAY, May 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A new rapid rabies test for animals could revolutionize screening and spare humans unnecessary painful treatment, according to a U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study published online May 16 in PLOS ONE.

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PPD Skin Test Enhances Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Tx in Bladder CA

WEDNESDAY, May 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, undergoing the purified protein derivative skin test prior to bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy may have therapeutic impact, according to a study published in the June issue of The Journal of Urology.

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Higher CRC Risk With Advanced Adenoma Found on Colonoscopy

WEDNESDAY, May 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Participants with an advanced adenoma at diagnostic colonoscopy have increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) relative to those with no adenoma, according to a study published in the May 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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High Occupational Exercise Level Tied to Early Mortality in Men

TUESDAY, May 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — High levels of occupational physical activity in men are associated with an increased risk of early mortality, according to a review published online May 14 in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

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Asthma Mortality Inversely Tied to Deprivation in English Young

TUESDAY, May 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — For children and younger adults with asthma, prevalence and admissions increase with deprivation, while mortality is inversely associated with deprivation, according to a study published online May 14 in Thorax.

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Assisted Reproduction May Up Risk of Placental Anomalies

TUESDAY, May 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Among singleton pregnancies, assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with an increased risk of placental anomalies, according to a review published online May 8 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology.

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Use of Systematic Reviews Affects Newborn Screening Policy

TUESDAY, May 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Use of systematic review methodology is associated with reduced likelihood of screening for rare diseases using the newborn blood spot test being recommended, according to a meta-analysis published online May 9 in The BMJ.

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Risk Models Help Select Ever Smokers for Lung CA Screening

MONDAY, May 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Four lung cancer risk models perform best in selecting ever-smokers for screening, according to a study published online May 15 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Maternal Exposure to Polluted Air Tied to Elevated Child BP

MONDAY, May 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Exposure to ambient air pollution in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with increased risk of elevated blood pressure (BP) among offspring, according to a study published online May 14 in Hypertension.

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Anxiety Levels Tied to Bone Mineral Density Post-Menopause

MONDAY, May 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Anxiety levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in the lumbar spine and femoral neck among postmenopausal women, according to a study published online May 7 in Menopause.

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Overall, Drinking Wine Does Not Impact Prostate Cancer Risk

MONDAY, May 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Moderate wine consumption does not seem to impact the risk of prostate cancer, according to a review published online April 17 in Clinical Epidemiology.

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CKAP4 Is Novel Serodiagnostic Marker for Lung Cancer

FRIDAY, May 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) appears to be a novel serodiagnostic marker for lung cancer, with increased levels in lung cancer patients versus healthy controls, according to a study published online May 8 in The American Journal of Pathology.

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Screening Blood Donations for Zika Virus Is Costly, Low Yield

FRIDAY, May 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Screening blood donations for Zika virus (ZIKV) in the United States is costly with low yield, according to a study published in the May 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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FDA Targets Clinics Offering Unapproved Stem Cell Therapies

THURSDAY, May 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has launched legal action to stop two stem cell clinics from providing unapproved treatments that have caused serious, long-term harm to some patients.

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Novel Thirdhand Smoke Exposure Route Identified

THURSDAY, May 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Thirdhand smoke (THS), the chemical residue from cigarette smoke that attaches to anything and anyone in the vicinity of a smoke cloud, can still make its way into the air of buildings that currently have a non-smoking designation, according to a study published online May 9 in Science Advances.

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Uveal Effusion Reported After Initiation of Anti-PD-1, -PD-L1

THURSDAY, May 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Patients receiving immunotherapy with antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 (anti-PD-1) and antiprogrammed cell death ligand-1 (anti-PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies may develop uveal effusion, according to a report published online April 12 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Nodal Metastasis Risk Up When Cancer Is Directly on the Lip

THURSDAY, May 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The risk of nodal metastasis is five-fold greater for skin cancer on the vermilion lip versus the cutaneous lip, according to a study published online May 2 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Age of First Football Tackles Tied to Neuro Symptom Onset

THURSDAY, May 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Younger age of exposure to tackle football predicts earlier neurobehavioral symptom onset among players with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), according to a study published online April 30 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Crowdfunding Exaggerates Efficacy of Unproven Stem Cell Tx

WEDNESDAY, May 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Crowdfunding campaigns for unproven stem cell-based interventions tend to exaggerate the efficacy and underemphasize the risks, according to a research letter published in the May 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Women Have Stronger Link Between APOE-ε4, CSF Tau Levels

WEDNESDAY, May 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The correlation between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene allele APOE-ε4 and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau levels is stronger among women than men, according to a study published online May 7 in JAMA Neurology.

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Chronic Aspirin Exposure Linked to Melanoma Risk in Males

WEDNESDAY, May 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Chronic acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin) exposure is associated with increased risk of malignant melanoma (MM) in men, but not women, according to a letter to the editor published online March 27 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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USPSTF: Decision to Undergo PSA Screening Should Be Individual

TUESDAY, May 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the decision to undergo periodic prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer should be an individual one for men aged 55 to 69 years. These findings form the basis of a final recommendation statement, published in the May 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Regulatory Requirements Drive Dissatisfaction With EHRs

TUESDAY, May 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Regulatory requirements are likely to be an important aspect of physician dissatisfaction with electronic health records (EHRs) that is driving burnout, according to an Ideas and Opinions piece published online May 8 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk for Endometrial Cancer Survivors

TUESDAY, May 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Endometrial cancer survivors have an elevated risk of various adverse long-term cardiovascular outcomes, according to a study published online May 8 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Automated Algorithm Accurately IDs Plus Disease in ROP

TUESDAY, May 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A fully automated algorithm can accurately diagnose plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), according to a study published online May 2 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Folic Acid May Cut Stroke Risk in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients

MONDAY, May 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Hypertensive patients may lower their stroke risk with folic acid supplements, according to a study published in the May 15 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Eyes of Ebola Survivors Show Localized Pathological Changes

MONDAY, May 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have localized pathological changes in photoreceptors, according to a study published online May 3 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Many Organizations Not Meeting Trial Reporting Requirements

FRIDAY, May 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Many organizations are not meeting the trial registration and results reporting requirements clarified by “The Final Rule,” which had a compliance date of April 18, 2017, according to a study published online May 1 in BMC Medicine.

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Novel Signal ID’d for Microalbuminuria in Europeans With T2DM

FRIDAY, May 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A novel signal has been identified that is associated with microalbuminuria in Europeans with type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a study published online April 27 in Diabetes.

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CTC Status Predicts RT Benefit in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

THURSDAY, May 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Circulating tumor cell status is predictive of radiotherapy (RT) benefit in early-stage breast cancer, according to a study published online May 3 in JAMA Oncology.

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Gender Disparity Observed in Cancer Genetic Testing in the U.S.

THURSDAY, May 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Specific demographic groups have lower cancer genetic testing, including unaffected men compared with unaffected women, according to a research letter published online April 26 in JAMA Oncology.

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Living Near Livestock Farms May Help Protect Against Atopy

WEDNESDAY, May 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Living in close proximity to livestock farms may protect against atopy, according to a study published online April 30 in Occupational & Environmental Medicine.

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Vectorborne Diseases Up More Than Two-Fold From 2004 to 2016

WEDNESDAY, May 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Vectorborne diseases represent an increasing problem in the United States, with a more than two-fold increase in the number of annual reports from 2004 to 2016, according to research published in the May 1 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Practices Should Be Aware of Correct Way to Fire Employees

TUESDAY, May 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Physicians should be aware of the correct protocol for, as well as the laws involved in, firing employees, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Clinically Significant Anxiety Tied to Subsequent Dementia Risk

TUESDAY, May 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Clinically significant anxiety in midlife is associated with increased subsequent dementia risk over an interval of at least 10 years, according to a review published online April 30 in BMJ Open.

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Severe Obesity Tied to Faster Progression to Disability With RA

TUESDAY, May 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Severe obesity is associated with more rapid progression of disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to a study published online April 30 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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Certain Foods May Impact Timing of Menopause

TUESDAY, May 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Intake of some food groups and nutrients may affect the timing of menopause, according to a study published online April 30 in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.

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Perioperative MACCEs More Common With Diabetes

TUESDAY, May 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Perioperative major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) are more common among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), according to a study published online April 4 in Diabetes Care.

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Maternal, Child Sugar Intake Could Impact Child Cognition

TUESDAY, May 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Greater sugar consumption during pregnancy and early childhood may adversely impact child cognition, according to a study published online April 16 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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