Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 2017 08 2461(9) pii 10.1128/AAC.00837-17
Rilpivirine (TMC278) is a highly potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) representing an effective component of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the treatment of HIV-positive patients. Many antiretroviral drugs commonly used in cART are substrates of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and/or solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters and, therefore, are prone to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The aim of our study was to evaluate rilpivirine interactions with abacavir and lamivudine on selected ABC and SLC transporters in vitro and assess its importance for pharmacokinetics in vivo Using accumulation assays in MDCK cells overexpressing selected ABC or SLC drug transporters, we revealed rilpivirine as a potent inhibitor of MDR1 and BCRP, but not MRP2, OCT1, OCT2, or MATE1. Subsequent transport experiments across monolayers of MDCKII-MDR1, MDCKII-BCRP, and Caco-2 cells demonstrated that rilpivirine inhibits MDR1- and BCRP-mediated efflux of abacavir and increases its transmembrane transport. In vivo experiments in male Wistar rats confirmed inhibition of MDR1/BCRP in the small intestine, leading to a significant increase in oral bioavailability of abacavir. In conclusion, rilpivirine inhibits MDR1 and BCRP transporters and may affect pharmacokinetic behavior of concomitantly administered substrates of these transporters, such as abacavir.