To determine whether clinical outcomes are improved after repeat surgery for medically refractory epilepsy in children.
This is a single-center retrospective cohort analysis of all patients who received repeat resective surgery for ongoing seizures from 2000-2017. From a total of 251 consecutive individual epilepsy surgical patients for focal resection, 53 patients met study inclusion criteria and had adequate follow-up documented.
Median age of seizure-onset was 2.0-years-old (IQR 0.3-5.5 years). The median age at first epilepsy surgery was 6.3-years-old (IQR 2.9-9.2 years) and at second epilepsy surgery was 8.4-years-old (IQR 4.7-12.6 years). Overall, 53 % (n = 28) of this series achieved Engel Class I (seizure freedom); with improved seizure control (Engel Class I-II) in 83 % (n = 44) of the cohort. 64 % (n = 34) had one reoperation; 26 % (n = 14) had two; and 9% (n = 5) had three. Pathology: 58 % (n = 31) had focal cortical dysplasia; 13 % (n = 10) tumor; 9% (n = 5) encephalitis; 6% (n = 3) gliosis; 4% (n = 2) mesial temporal sclerosis; and 2% (n = 1) hemimegalencephaly. Tumor pathology was associated with increased chance (p = 0.01) for seizure freedom (90 % of tumor patients had Engel Class I outcome). MTS had worse outcome with both patients having ongoing seizures (Engel II-IV). There were 6 patients who developed post-operative hemiparesis; one was unplanned but resolved.
Reoperation for pediatric epilepsy surgery can lead to seizure freedom in many cases and improved seizure control in most cases. Reoperation for brain tumor pathology is associated with a high rate of seizure freedom.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.