This study aimed to assess the measurement properties of a simplified Chinese version of the Nonrestorative Sleep Scale (NRSS) among adolescents. We obtained a simplified Chinese NRSS by the standard forward-backward translation procedures and administered it to 486 students who were attending Grade 7-11 in Nanjing, China. Furthermore, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Athens Insomnia Scale, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Toronto Hospital Alertness Test were also self-completed for measuring sleep quality, insomnia, depression and alertness respectively. The sample was randomly split into two halves, with the first half used to explore the scale structure by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the second half used to confirm the identified structure by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A total of 481 adolescents (49% male) with a mean age of 16 years (range: 13-18) completed this study. In the other half of 250 adolescents, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), standardised root mean square residual, and comparative fit index (CFI) in CFA, which tested the four-factor structure obtained from EFA, were 0.062, 0.051 and 0.975, respectively. Convergent validity was demonstrated from a significant correlation of the simplified Chinese NRSS with sleep quality (r = -0.62), insomnia (r = -0.71), depression (r = -0.60) and alertness (r = 0.54). The internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the global scale were 0.83 and 0.86 respectively. Measurement invariance was established between males and females with the changes of both CFI and RMSEA < 0.01. The simplified Chinese NRSS is valid and reliable for measuring NRS among Chinese adolescents.
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