Mechanical properties are crucial parameters for scaffold design for bone tissue engineering; therefore, it is important to understand the definitions of the mechanical properties of bones and relevant analysis methods, such that tissue engineers can use this information to properly design the mechanical properties of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The main purpose of this article is to provide a review and practical guide to understand and analyze the mechanical properties of compact bone that can be defined and extracted from the stress-strain curve measured using uniaxial tensile test until failure. The typical stress-strain curve of compact bone measured using uniaxial tensile test until failure is a bilinear, monotonically increasing curve. The associated mechanical properties can be obtained by analyzing this bilinear stress-strain curve. In this article, a computer programming code for analyzing the bilinear stress-strain curve of compact bone for quantifying the associated mechanical properties is provided, such that the readers can use this computer code to perform the analysis directly. In addition to being applied to compact bone, the information provided by this article can also be applied to quantify the mechanical properties of any material having a bilinear stress-strain curve, such as a whole bone, some metals and biomaterials. The information provided by this article can be applied by tissue engineers, such that they can have a reference to properly design the mechanical properties of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The information can also be applied by researchers in biomechanics and orthopedics to compare the mechanical properties of bones in different physiological or pathological conditions.