Non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) is established on the basis of auricular acupuncture and the principle of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). The results of the comparative study of 4 indications of VNS show that ta-VNS achieves almost the equivalent effect as VNS. Moreover, the ta-VNS is advantageous at safety, economy and portability. Regarding the clinical prevention and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it is still controversial for the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy including auricular acupuncture. Moreover, it is the difficulty for the principle of acupoint selection and the treatment mechanism of this therapy to be in line with modern medicine. As neuroendocrine disease, PCOS and the ovary, its target organ are all associated with the vagus nerve. It is a new idea to introduce the ta-VNS in treatment of PCOS by regulating the reproductive and endocrinal disturbance of PCOS in terms of vagus nerve and improving the acupuncture and moxibustion therapy, such as the auricular acupuncture. In the paper, the potential mechanism of the ta-VNS in treatment of PCOS is presented: 1)the ta-VNS treats PCOS by improving insulin resistance; 2)the ta-VNS relieves PCOS-induced psychological disorders through the treatment of depression; 3)the ta-VNS is applicable in treatment of PCOS complications, such as hypertension and diabetes.